There is no intuitive option to change the time of day in Rage 2, but there's actually a pretty good solution out there for anyone that don't really enjoy playing during the dark nights.
In order to change the time of the day in Rage 2, simply press pause and go to Photo Mode. This mode gives you a lot of options, including changing the time! You can change the time to be whatever you like, down to the minute.
This is a great way to skip over the dark nights that provide next to no visibility, and rather play during the day where there is more than enough light to see everything.