First of you got to start your colony. Each biome has advantages and disadvantages, but for beginners, I usually suggest going for the temperate forests or rainforest. With these two you don't need to worry too much about clothing and temperature. You should find a map that also has granite and marble rocks, as well as some nice mountain areas. That way you will never run out of steel and blocks, which is very useful in this game.
When you create your first characters, you can keep generating ones until you get some that are good. Try to stick away from obvious disadvantages, and also try to have a somewhat balanced team. Having 10 in a skill is very nice, but remember that a lot of colonists will die, so don't rely entirely on only one colonist for one skill.
Once you are in-game, choose a base not to far away from the crash site, to avoid getting too deep into areas where enemies will spawn. Start out the process by planting rice and potatoes to avoid starving at the beginning.
After the farm is done, build some sandbags to keep enemies away. Make sure they are far enough away from your farm so that raiders cannot burn them down! Building against a mountain is pretty nice, as this requires a lot less sandbags.
You also want to have some power, and a regular Fueled Generator is good for early game. They only give a small amount of power, but are pretty consistent and easy to repair. You could also build a few solar panels or windwills. These gives a lot of power during their peak in daylight and storms, but are useless at night and whenever there is no wind.
For storing food, carve a big chuck out of mountain and make an airlock for the door and normals walls. This will be your cooler, and make your colonists store all the food in here. Make sure you have the airlock, or else warm air will enter the cooler, making it useless.
For protecting your base, start out by removing all cover in front of your base. This includes all stones and trees, so that raiders cannot hide behind them when they raid you. You can use the stones as a second layer of defense if you place them in front of your sandbags.
Keeping your colonists happy and aliveAt this point you should have a base with some beds, a freezer and some basic defense. Now the next step is to keep your colonists safe and happy, which is harder than it sounds. You want to build a research bench and use it to upgrade stuff. Start by researching stone cutting, which is extremely useful for building stuff from all the stones. You will eventually want to upgrade all burnable materials into the bricks made from stone, as a lot of raiders enjoy attacking with fire!
The basic to happiness is giving the colonists some nice rooms, such as a 5x5 bedroom with everything anyone would want in their bedroom, including plants, lamps and of course a bed. Also make sure you create some common areas such as a dining room and a recreational room.
For more advanced defense, use the research bench to research turrets. These are very good and will make sure your colonists can stay safe inside while the turrets take care of the raiders. You could alternatively research guns and weapons for more interactive combat, but this could of course lead to a lot more dead colonists.
When you build your turrets, make sure they defend the crops and your farm as well. They will definitely burn this down if they have a chance!