Unless you like walking a lot, you will eventually have to learn to fast travel in The Outer World. It is a beautiful game that feels great to walk in, but at a certain point you will probably want to fast travel in order to not having to spend hours completing a small side quest.
Luckily for us the fast travel mechanic is very fluidly implemented into the game, so it feel almost natural to fast travel. To do so, open the main Map by hitting the M key on PC, touchpad on PS4 or View button on Xbox One. This map will show you all the locations that you have visited already, and all you need to do now is to hover over an icon where you have already been and click on the mouse button, A or X (depending on your system) to fast travel to that point.
There are no particular things you need to find before unlocking that areas as a fast travel point, so simply go there to unlock it. And there is also no restrictions on where you can fast travel from.
However, you cannot fast travel between different planets, so you will need to head back to the Unreliable to travel between them.